Dunn’s Civics > Black History > Immorality of Markets

Empires of West Africa

Not one of these indiginous states below exists today; only remnants divided up by colonial powers.


What and who replaced them?

The Great Mosque of Djenné in central Mali is the largest adobe building in the world.

The first mosque on the site was built around the 13th century, but the current structure dates from 1907.

What other architectural and construction works existed
in Africa before European colonization?


Pyramids at Giza

Pyramids at Giza

"The Egyptians began using the pyramid form shortly after 2700 B.C., and the great heyday of constructing them for royalty extended for about a thousand years, until about 1700 B.C."

Donald Redford, professor of Classics and ancient Mediterranean studies at Penn State

The Egyptian pyramids are the most famous pre-colonial buildings in Africa as a whole.  But is Egypt part of Black Africa? 


One way to answer to this question is to examine the facial features of the Egyptian pharoah, Tutankhamun, who ruled 1333 BC - 1323 BC.  

Both National Geographic and the British Museum have analysed CAT scan X-rays of King Tut’s skull and reconstructed his face accordingly.  

However, the U.S. National Geographic reconstruction looks like a white/brown man, whereas the British Museum one looks more like a black man.  

National Geographic 

National Geographic 

British Museum 

British Museum 

Which reconstruction do you think is the more accurate?