Many African empires and kingdoms existed in the pre-colonial era, such as the Ashanti and Benin, and the Dahomey and Kongo.
Nigeria was home to the Haussa, Yoruba and Igbo cultures.
Then came the “Scramble for Africa,” a process of invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation by competing European powers between 1881 and the eve of World War One.
The result: by 1913, the European colonial powers controlled almost the entire continent.
The Berlin Conference of 1885, regulated the European Colonization in Africa, coinciding with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
Compare the way Africa was colonized to the American conquest of the Native Americans.
The Europeans treated the Africans with a mixture of utter contempt and appalling cruelty.
A joint investigation by the BBC, the Guardian and Democracy Now!
American "vulture" investors, have demanded that African nations pay over half a billion dollars for old debts – for which the investors paid only a few million.
One New York vulture speculator, Peter Grossman of FG Capital Management, is demanding $100 million from the Democratic Republic of Congo, which is currently ravaged by a diastrous cholera epidemic.
Is the colonization of Africa over?
Watch this debate on intelligence squared about the effects of the British Empire on its former colonies
Laurens van der Post Interview: South Africa TV ChannelOn being a Euro-African